“If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health.” – Hippocrates
Sometimes we become so busy that we forget to prioritize our health. Only when our bodies send us a physical reminder, do we remember to take care of ourselves. What if we were mindful about our health more often and practiced preventive, proactive healthcare? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 70% of deaths and 80% of hospital admissions in the US are due to chronic, long-term illnesses, such as diabetes and cancer (1). Much of this morbidity and mortality is preventable through improved diet, regular exercise, and eliminating tobacco use. In fact, as much as 40% of cancers and 80% of heart disease, strokes, and diabetes may be prevented by lifestyle changes. These statistics are relevant to everyone, with at least 80% of the world’s chronic illnesses occurring in middle- and low-income regions (2).
This is the first of three posts discussing easy steps you can fit into a regular routine to help regain control of your health and wellness.
Drink water. Our bodies need water for most biological processes- digestion, maintaining body temperature, even brain function. Adult men should get about 16 cups of water a day from food and drinks, and women about 12 cups. About 80% of that (9-13 cups) should come from beverages, with fresh, filtered water the best choice. Actual needs vary based on the heat and humidity where you live, your age, activity level, overall health, and if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Why do we need so much water? Our bodies are actually 60% water, including 80% of our blood and 70% of our brain (3), (4), (5). If you want to perform at your best, drinking water is a quick way to get there.
Eat well. Despite an obesity epidemic in many industrialized nations, we have a serious problem with malnutrition due to high consumption of nutrient-deficient foods. One essential health tip is to eat natural foods and omit processed products. The National Health Service Eatwell and US Department of Agriculture MyPlate guides provide visual representations of how much of each food group you should consume per meal. The Harvard School of Public Health has also released excellent guidance in the HealthyEating Plate with comparison to MyPlate available. They emphasize including a variety of colorful vegetables and fruits on half the plate, and whole grains and protein sources on the other half. Limit red meat, and avoid processed foods (6), (7). The Healthy Eating Plate also includes advice about drinking plenty of water, limiting unhealthy fats, omitting sugary drinks, and emphasizes the importance of maintaining an active lifestyle.
Limit sugar. Regular intake of sugar can contribute to weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and heart problems. The CDC suggests limiting sugar to less than 10% of daily calories (8). The Healthy Eating Plate advises against sugary drinks and recommends limiting fruit juice to one small glass a day. They also recommend limiting starchy foods like potatoes, which increase blood sugar. Foods that are rapidly digested and cause a spike in blood sugar have a high glycemic index. Stick with foods that have a medium to low glycemic index, as listed here.
Be active. Exercise is beneficial all around, for our physical, mental and emotional wellness. There’s a vast amount of data supporting the protective effects of exercise against chronic illnesses, aging-related problems, weight gain, and depression. A standard recommendation is to engage in moderate-level activity for 30 minutes each day (9). This could include walking, gardening, dancing, or cleaning the house. There are different ways to quickly increase the amount of activity you get in a day, including taking the stairs, parking further and walking, standing while working, or having walking meetings with colleagues and friends.
Eliminate tobacco. Smoking rates in the US have gone down by half during the past four decades. However, about 34 million US adults still use tobacco, and 58 million nonsmokers are exposed to secondhand smoke (10). One of five deaths in the US is attributed to the effects of cigarette smoking, which also accounts for 87% of lung cancer deaths and 30% or more of all cancer deaths each year. Quitting smoking before you’re 50 years old can reduce the risk of smoking-related death by half over the next 15 years. That’s huge! Quitting smoking also improves the long-term outlook and quality of life for those who spend time with you. There are a number of evidence-backed approaches to stop smoking. Speak with your healthcare provider about the best options for you. Follow up with your healthcare team as often as needed to keep you on track, and build the support team you need to help you succeed.
Electronic apps take the hard work out of remembering what or how much you’re drinking or eating. Many of these apps also track steps and allow entry of other types of physical activity. Keeping food diaries and logging your activity levels can help you achieve your fitness goals. These strategies make a difference when applied consistently.
In our next post, we’ll cover simple strategies for being more proactive about our healthcare, focusing on screening and education.